Mid forties dating

After the legendary expulsion of the last Etruscan King, Tarquin the Proud, a harsh ruler at the end of the Roman Kingdom, most of the powers and authority of the king were ostensibly given to the newly instituted consulship.This change in leadership came about when the king's son, Sextus Tarquinius, raped the wife and daughter of powerful Roman nobles.For example, Emperor Honorius was given the consulship at birth.Cassius Dio states that Caligula intended to make his horse Incitatus consul, but was assassinated before he could do so.

Consuls had extensive powers in peacetime (administrative, legislative and judicial), and in wartime often held the highest military command.Nevertheless, the office remained largely in the hands of a few families as, according to Gelzer Modern historians have questioned the traditional account of plebeian emancipation during the early Republic (see Conflict of the Orders), noting for instance that about thirty percent of the consuls prior to Sextius had plebeian, not patrician, names.It is possible that only the chronology has been distorted, but it seems that one of the first consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, came from a plebeian family.A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired).Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term.

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